Tag Archives: Education

Cycling to learn

Archana Somshekhar

As an academic investigator I had visited Shikshantar, an NGO in Udaipur, to see their work on alternative education. Shikshantar believes in zero-schooling, which means not admitting a child into a school at all, but letting him/her learn on his/her own if and when the child is interested. 

Shikshantar is also associated with ‘Swaraj University’, a new concept in today’s world, though an old concept if you look into ancient history. Swaraj University does not give any degrees, believing that a degree is not necessary for one to become successful in life. One can successfully practice a trade/ profession/ occupation to meet one’s livelihood needs without a degree. Students who join Swaraj University come from backgrounds and may even be school dropouts. Called ‘Khojis’, or seekers, these students interact with various experts from varied fields, seek to find out what they are most suited for themselves, and then train as apprentices under an expert in the field to learn the skills of the trade, so that they can earn their livelihood.

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Dialog Method for presentations

Archana Somshekhar

INTRODUCTION:

Conferences make one wonder whether they are of any use at all. Whether the amount of money and time spent on them in terms of arrangements made and the fares for all the participants was worth the effort and money, considering that nothing concrete seems to come out of them as far as implementable recommendations, etc are concerned. Continue reading

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Eternal Truths: Indian Education

(Courtesy: http://www.omenad.net)

Rajiv Trivedi

Education brings an individual mind nearer its potential and collectively, it brings minds together. India has traditionally been considered a Guru, nations of the world have benefited  from whose wisdom. Of the few ancient civilizations that retain continuity, India could succeed in fabricating a harmonious coexistence of man and nature through seamless integration of religious, political, economic and social systems. It achieved an invisibility of structure that modern cyber world aims at, but is still far from. Civilizations with more structured form of religion shared some of the Indian ideals. Faith, universal brotherhood, truth, duty and so on have been ideals of Christianity, Islam and many other religions. However natural curiosity and its intellectual equivalent, ‘Rationality’ began to paint the world in fresh colours during renaissance.

Rationality, by its very definition limits itself, accepting what can be determined through existing knowledge assets. Cyber world, contrary to expectation, has followed the physical principle of visuality rather than transcendence. Social networking has roots not in intangible essence but physical attributes and preferences. The recent ‘advancement’ of facial recognition was declared intrusive and a German regulator has asked Facebook to disable the social-networking service’s photo-tagging feature.

Superstitions were questioned as were sacred truth. Industrial and then technological revolution changed meanings and relationships. The philosophical leap from monarchy, plutocracy to democracy, empowered the ordinary man. Poets equated the ordinary with noble and sublime. It was no longer a shame to be plain. Plainness even became fashionable. After the second world war, more and more nations gained freedom and sovereignty. They came together to collaborate towards progress. And through peaceful means! It was a welcome change. Welcome in this instance, because change traditionally has held negative connotations. Continue reading

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Dialogue and Re-Dialogue

Dr. B.K.Passi and Dr. (Ms.) S.Passi

Dialogue is a community of researchers. It is an innovation of collective
learning. The dialogue approach is highly interactive. The authors of these lines have designed this approach for paper-presentation in the
conferences. Dialogue can encompass the processes of exploring, learning,
teaching, researching and collective paper-presentation. Dialogues have
been used for personal mastery, shared vision, team learning, team working
and team researching.
imageThe Dialogue creates a spirit of Wholeness. Dialogue combats the current dominant approach of fragmentation and counter checks the ill effects of explaining what this means, why it matters, and how it relates to every aspect of our lives. Wholeness of Dialogue involves two sub-processes: (a) Progressive Differentiation and (b) Integrative Reconciliation. Many modes like cycled-mode and non-cycled-mode can be followed. The Dialogue mode is informal, open, and safe. The Delegates create a collective, meaningful environment of wholeness. It addresses the problem caused by isolated specialization. Dialogue implies an enhanced honor to the totality of existence.

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Non Formal Learning Communities: The Way Forward

Renu Nanda, B K Passi & S C Agarkar

Background/ Introduction

Education as an activity is a social artifact modeled and remodeled from time to time to enable successive generations to realize their human potential as they grow from infancy to adulthood and beyond. The contours & characteristics of the strategies adopted for organizing the processes involved are themselves dependent on a number of factors that vary across time & space. A retrospective look at the history of mankind and the way the strategies of education have changed over the centuries reveal several interesting features.

The overall concern for illiterate, unorganized and suffering got a boost in the form of a manifesto prepared by Marx and Engles in the later half of the 19th century, becoming the first ideological base provided to voice the demands of this suffering class of humanity. Mass illiteracy, a worldwide phenomenon, is a sign of socio-economic and educational underdevelopment. Levels of literacy in a country indicate the minimum educational achievement that the population has accomplished. The rate of literacy has been used by educationists and economists, to show strong relationship between education and economic development.

Indian democracy has completed 63 years, its impact on various sectors of Indian life has been varied and in certain cases inadequate. The occasion has come for social scientists to take stock of situation and evaluate the extent to which social legislation and forces of modernization have been successful in eradicating causes of inequality and in evolving processes of healthy growth of Indian society through an appropriate educational system of the country. Continue reading

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Remodeling Learning Governance

A. K. Awasthi,

It has been felt by most – differently, depending on their objectives – that modern pace of life has begin to value education. Apparently, a positive sign, this keenness has caused more grief than elevation. Suggested below is framework that strives to strike a balance between the current and ideal system. Economic models are replacing ones based on human values; it is both good and bad.

Need for a movement and policy

Human society and man’s attributes are all part of Nature. History tells us that his creation reflects his rationality, which may sustain onslaughts of time provided it is in agreement with the natural order, law or scheme of things. When  otherwise, it goes into disarray either late or soon. It may be anything, a thought like communism or any technology. An idea, which is compatible with nature, alone possesses the quality to succeed – it has universal appeal, is practicable by all and therefore acceptable to all.

The natural scheme is relative, inter-linked; one cause leads to an effect that becomes a cause for another effect, which is sustained for yet another effect Thus there is a chain, unbroken and affecting the whole and leading to the supreme cause. In comprehension the whole phenomenon appears too complex and intriguing to conceive what exactly it is. Man may not think to create such complex phenomenon but he can follow the fundamentals of natural selection and compatibility. Accordingly, the worth, the subject or the process may be decided as being in conformity with Nature. Continue reading

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Darkness in Mind

 

A stock of adjectives used with education illustrates the variety of interests in what is perceived to be pillar-stone of any society. From the days of studying professions or pursuing vocations, adjectives have been added to this natural activity of a community. Study had been restricted to the domain of religion; renaissance brought it to secular domain. In a feudal structure, only the curious pursued it and found it strangely illuminating their minds and liberating their consciousness from immediate concerns of here and now. The enchanted mind could transcend the bounds of history and geography and soak his thirsty soul in perpetual fount of knowledge. It was with his blessed state as a model that education found its truest epithet. Liberal education existed till almost the final decades of last century, but paradoxically the political change it formulated and realized – burgeoning of democracy – could not support this ‘feudal’ ideal and it gave way to several of its avatar-s, each of which tried to replace it fully and failed. Well, failed to hold their own, but together they almost succeeded in flushing it out.

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Speak, but let others too

Prof.B.K.Passi

Educators never rest. Through their looking glass they focus on this and that. At times, it pays to have narrow focus, for learning gets intense and in-depth. Generally, an inclusive point of view appears liberal, but it tends to fitter away energy. The holistic model might truly get whole, if it allows a two-way communication. From Veda-s to Greek philosophers, a dialogue between the curious and the wise has unfolded the mysteries of universe and existence. Many have tried to emulate it in parts. David Bohm, Donald Factor and Peter Garrett among others are proponents for application of Dialogue. Proposed below is one more look at this approach.

Dialogue Based Wholistic Model

This model called Dialogue Based Pedagogy of teacher education is powerful and relevant for correcting a fragmented society. Dialogue creates a wholistic pedagogy that works against the approach of reductionism.

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‘Building’ Teachers

“Every thing that tends to insulate the individual, –to surround him with barriers of natural respect, so that each man shall feel the world is his, and man shall treat with man as a sovereign state with a sovereign state;–tends to true union as well as greatness.” R.W. Emerson, American Scholar

One of the by-products of industrialization was standardization. Advent of technology empowered business, following standardization, focused on ‘product’ as unit of their affairs. Soon, evaluation of human beings as human resources brought them down to same inanimate level of products.

In all other avenues, it is the research, technology and finance that matters. People working there are merely support functionaries. It is in health and education that they truly turn into products. Naturally, you would like to enhance the quality of  toaster, car, teacher and doctor. So, you bring in reforms, ever so often, to keep pace with fashion.

The Urban Condition

No time to stand and stare...

With health reform, there is infrastructure, multiple industries so nurses and doctors are pushed to fringe. In case of education reform, with publication syndicates representing industry, full thrust is upon the human part – the teacher. Early on, several disciplines (psychology and then management) provided the much needed ingress to a rock solid academia. Soon a new discipline of Education started spanning its wings. It did help, so long its genuine understanding of the activity appealed to contributors to provide teachers with ample material. Over the time, losing objectivity, the suggestions stemmed out with burden of its own pedagogy.

It did not matter to ask whether education would enlighten mind, brighten spirits through a particular course of action. So, long as it served as a tool to narrow the focus of young minds in desired direction, it was enough. With the change in premise, it was easy to design the delivery system to a T. The reform deliberates either the area of focus or the manner of delivery.

The present reform in U.S. ponders over what kind of coaching system should be enforced to get the desired end-product. So the National Center on Education and the Economy, a think tank funded mostly by large corporations and their affiliated foundations observes that the country is no longer able to ‘build’ better teachers. With their study of teaching practices in countries like Finland, China and Canada — where educators devote greater time in preparing and have  significant autonomy in how to teach – the likely policy would be to import coaching of that time.

Random_michael comments on an article by Kevin Drum:

I’m a college professor and my wife is a grade-school teacher, so I am painfully familiar with the abysmal state of education in the U.S. Unfortunately, one of the main culprits is the system of teacher training. Simply put, schools of ed suck. Almost universally.
The reasons are complex, but a big one is, ironically, the concept of teacher training itself. Schools of ed are staffed by faculty who get tenure by publishing research. So there is a powerful incentive to generate what is ultimately specious evidence for this or that pedagogical method. This is how you get published, attract funding, get raises and promotions, etc. But it has nothing to do with turning out better teachers. Just the reverse: inculcating each crop of students with the latest breakthrough in teaching multiplication only harms classroom instruction. No wonder some of the worst teachers are those who teach teachers, as my wife can attest.
Things have gotten so bad that we no longer know what counts as a good education or effective instruction. Hence the proliferation of tests that serve to kick this basic problem down the road by marshaling “experts” who devise measurements of narrowly defined “facts” and “skills.” Meanwhile, we worship at the altar of “freedom” and “self-esteem” while in fact depriving kids of genuine foundations for both.

It leads to an examination of our starting premises. In a democracy, the end is Man. Questions, Thoreau, “Can there not be a government in which the majorities do not virtually decide right and wrong, but conscience?” This ‘conscience’ which is prime currency of democratic ideal, does it find any representation in course of modern human existence? It is only in young, untainted minds that seeds of conscience strengthen the stem of purposeful existence. Only when inquiry is goaded and guided by it, that result would benefit individual and the world alike.  It needs a person who may without ambiguity seem to be an embodiment of truth to teach the truth:

He who gives himself entirely to his fellow men appears to them useless and selfish; but he who gives himself partially to them is pronounced a benefactor and philanthropist. Thoreau

It is not that we lacked any resources to point us in the right direction; we prefer to look elsewhere than in our own hearts – where the answer lies.  The renaissance of  this continent began with the warning: to stop looking elsewhere and rely on what we have. Building a teacher can never be the aim; nurturing future citizens could be. Individuals build their community, society, nation. Let them be individuals who are conscientious, responsible, honest and giving: you will have a strong nation.  Bernard Shaw might appear to be elitist, but he pointed merely the direct relationship between  treatment and growth:

the difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves, but how she’s treated. Pygmalion

Make the profession of teaching as that of builders ( not of human beings but of society and life-view) where a teacher feels responsible, is allowed to act conscionably, unburdened to give freely and you will have such a society.

Works Cited

“EMERSON–“THE AMERICAN SCHOLAR”” Virginia Commonwealth University. Web. 31 May 2011. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/authors/emerson/essays/amscholar.html.

“Henry David Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience.” Index. Web. 31 May 2011. http://www.constitution.org/civ/civildis.htm.

“George Bernard Shaw: Pygmalion: Act V – Free Online Library.” George Bernard Shaw – Free Online Library. Web. 31 May 2011. http://shaw.thefreelibrary.com/Pygmalion/5-1.

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Knowledge rewarded

Being vital for any civilized society, education often is taken for granted. But occasionally the busy wheels of life stop for a moment to notice those who serve equally as they stand and wait. It is heartening whenever that happens.

Such an occasion was the 10th annual EduGala held at Algonquin College where along with others, Carleton professors Leighann Neilson and H. Masud Taj were presented with Capital Educator Awards on Thursday evening from the Ottawa-Carleton Learning Foundation (OCLF), which facilitates dialogue and action to support public education in the community – from Kindergarten to PhD.

Leighann Neilson has been an assistant professor of marketing in the Sprott School of Business since 2006. Neilson designs her courses in keeping with her philosophy that learning, especially in undergraduate courses, “doesn’t have to hurt.” Students say her sense of humour is one of the things they most enjoy in her class. Neilson believes in integrating teaching and research, frequently bringing insights from her research in not-for-profit marketing or the Canadian wine industry into the classroom.

H. Masud Taj is an adjunct professor at Carleton. He conducts design studios at the Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism and lectures on Muslim civilizations at the Centre for Initiatives in Education.  Both his studios and his lectures are premised on “alterity” − to know ourselves, we need to know the other. He is the director of Transnational Architectural Journeys with projects in India where he delivered the keynote at the 2ndInternational Conference of Islamic Art and Architecture. As an architect, he was mentored by the Egyptian visionary Hasan Fathy, and as a calligrapher, by Italic master David Hosbrough.

His poetry is archived in the University’s Special Collection.

The award ceremony can be viewed here.

Teaching is a futuristic activity that never loses sight of past. It is considered to be and often appears, a profession but teaching is a call. As the saying goes some instruct, others inform but the best inspire. It is in the dreams of their students that teachers live. One of the awardees, Taj  represented the spirit of eternal teacher in his acceptance speech.

I am pleased to win the Capital Educators Award. To those who nominated me: thank you for your trust. All finalists here and my colleagues at Azreili School of Architecture and Urbanism are dedicated teachers in their own ways and many more deserving than I. Hence I accept the award on their behalf.

I thank all my students at Azreili School of Architecture and Urbanism as well as life-long learners that I lecture to at Centre for Initiatives in Education at Carleton University. I also thank students and colleagues at the International Academy of Science & Technology here as well as at Sir JJ College of Architecture, Rizvi School of Architecture, and Pillai School of Architecture in India and I recall my teachers there in gratitude – Sardar Muhammad Malik of Blue Mountains School and Prof Yatin Chandawarker of Bandra School of Art.

In my forthcoming book of poems, Alphabestiary (with exegesis by Dr Bruce Meyer) the Grasshopper says:

Map your senses

On to my frame of reference,

Your thighs will bulge

With muscular insights.

You will witness

The world the way I do,

Take a leap of faith,

Fly.

I thank my family for their insights and my parents for their faith in us (my sisters too are teachers). Parents faith in their children remain unshaken: they told me I was going to win the award and that I should read out their greetings to all the teachers assembled here. So here is the message from my 86 year old parents:

Prophet Muhammad (may peace and blessings be upon him) said : “God, His angels and all those in heavens and on earth, even ants in their hills and fish in the water call down blessings on those who teach others beneficial knowledge.

Salute to all who teach and blessings to all who learn.

Knowledge is its own reward, teaching, own joy.

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Reclaiming Intent

Dr. Rajiv Trivedi

It is said that words profane an idea. As our restricted technological advance commits us to human communication through imperfect linguistic expression, we conduct ourselves thus. It is this elasticity of language that accounts for greater use of fuzzy logic in all human affairs. So while most people use this phrase to describe a process in which the direction of brain-drain changes, I use it as an appeal to change the nature of such a drain.

It all began with quantification of human being. For some time, it seemed a good thing as historically, human being had been treated as less than that. But while in the past, it was a product of instinct-based more-barbaric-than-civilized society; in the twentieth century it was a conscious act to place human-beings at certain pre-conceived levels. More than anything else, this century can be adjudged as being consumed with the process of evaluating man. For the first time in his history, man had focused his eyes away from gods and heavens towards his own tiny but real existence.

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Conference on Education

[Announcement of this Conference has been received from Prof. B.K. Passi, leading educationist and thinker.]

AIAER International Conference

On Learning Community For Global Education Reform”  

to be held in asociation with

Institute of Professional Studies,

Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Nov 18-20, 2011

Visit page for more information   

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Wisdom, packaged!

When we speak of a global learning community, we should understand why it is a notion geared less for creation and more for destruction of knowledge. However, to avoid polarization and controversy it is wise to yield to limited practicability of this idea. If we allow that sweep of time is going to annihilate all then, for a little while, the album of such a notion might well carry faded pictures that fail to live the actual tale of life. It is essential that we understand and accept the duality of formal, structured one for global uniformity systems and traditional, discipline-specific systems of proven merit. We respect the second by not including them in the first and by treating them both at par. However in most cases, the formal systems can never match the intensity of the traditional ones. For example, notice how a boy of 5 or 6 begins to learn Tabla or Sitar in a Benares or Calcutta generational musician family. As he grows his learning hours grow to 12-14 hours a day. Same is true of other ancient Indian knowledge systems that commercialization in its bid for profit has usurped for exploitation. Does a student in the formal Ayurvedic medicine course take a morning walk to identify medicinal plants? He would scarcely be able to match the name with real thing. Do we even care to provide him with a walk in a place with medicinal plants?   If we forget our holistic methods of learning and exchange them for cut-and-dried research based methods, how can we expect education to serve people at grass-roots?

The three forms of education are primarily for three different learning communities.
The formal system is the largest system structured according to present and future needs as perceived by mandarins of State. From our experience of education system in India we can deduce its function and failures:

1. Purported function is to enable the population to enhance their social, economic and political status. As a huge part of population is on fringe of mainstream, the structure has constantly modified itself to include them. This socio-political necessity has taken its toll on academic aspect, becoming facile and laborious for the intellectually advanced (plans for bright students in 70s, 80s were advanced, but they grew out of fashion rather than academic standards; the superiority of infrastructure driven by commercial interests, came into existence; after that all discussions had little to do with education, more with appearance and profitability).

This is for middle classes geared for upward mobility. This serves to give planners, civil servants and main-stream white-collared work force.

2. The semi-formal existed with state support to religious institutions, which allowed some traditional knowledge to be delivered, mostly in a mediocre fashion.

This is generally for weaker sections unless an empowered individual specifically desires to pursue this. Blue collared and agricultural workers generated out of this helped in maintaining traditional ethos and harmony. Largest section of the populace, it is this group that displays the true democratic fervor of a nation. Amity, endurance and hard work that bind the society are outcome of their faith.

3. Informal education of traditional wisdom has survived through individuals following the Guru-Shishya tradition either with support from community, charity or through sheer personal will. Excellence and perfection resulted out of dedication and devotion, where the knowledge gained was its own reward. It is this group that is vastly threatened today by penetrative, all-pervading, despoiling stance of modern systems. It is this informal system of life-view transference that needs to be safe-guarded.

This serves for creating specialized professionals from scholar to the artisan. The knowledge gain here is inter-mingled with meditation of and actual life-style. People from all economic sections are accommodated within its various forms.

The need therefore is to keep the last two throbbing and vibrant as we perfect the first for smooth operation. Learning, which leads to wisdom, is born out of a life-style that serves both, the individual and the community. Modern scientific approach may improve the formal structure so long it does not denounce, denigrate or despoil the traditional systems.  There never is a question that ancient learning systems deliver. This premise serves as starting point for all action groups. When these systems are denounced, the deep-rooted understanding is of their possible and certain outcome. They proffer and produce resistive strength towards desirables of modern behavior – mindless consumption due ambition and greed; limited intelligence suitable to carry out certain tasks without deviating from predictable SOP (standard operating procedure); lack of strong social bond and personal time together which may lead to rejection and revolution.

Formal structures serve to create an army of obedient slaves till their mechanical alternative is perfected. Well, not always; but because they leave little to open stimulus or external flux, they may well be engineered for total compliance. However, it is less about fault-tolerance than their actual status. Structured training can also open up new vistas within a person, if consciously perfected for this end. Ordinarily, with greater concern on eroding individual traits, it often breeds a common point of view and similar preferences.

The second has been forwarded to accommodate the globally structured one; otherwise, as corollary to knowledge delivery through different traditional systems, it is already included. After all the structured system too has a tradition to speak of.

In planning educational changes across India, the first realization should be that we are different from Australia, Canada, America etc., because we are not a recently discovered geographic location. We well might be the beginning of civilized existence of mankind. Our history has been unbroken and our culture banks on continuity.

America is most glorious place in the world — freest of them all. Its history starts with migration after renaissance. The world (European world) had struggled with evolution, civilization, war, famine, dark ages and re-awakening, all before they knew of this geographical part of world. So, it was fully developed and cultured people from different nations, beliefs and creeds who travelled to this place and created a rational society based on their cumulative diverse experiences after eradicating the natives and importing a working class from Africa. Almost all days — Father’s day, Mother’s day… — were created here. They do not arise out of any previous cultural/ religious practice but out of need to create a common cultural inheritance. This is an example of how all its proposed strategies and plans are founded on rational practices (as opposed to organic evolutionary ones) and to serve lowest common denominators cut off from geography, history, vocation, religion and racial memory. To be able to start off with a clean slate! Truly a dream-place for democracy so long it remains a conscious value. Rational men may treat each other politely but would hardly engage in such irrational tasks as love, honor, narrow loyalty, custom, ritual that might propel a member of an organically evolved society to act out. Rational persons work on a single principle — profit / gain. If through certain action the world ‘gains’ knowledge it is good and so on. Even after this, the rational thinkers understood well that if administered properly, the personal ‘gain’ motive could be harnessed for a better and stronger community. Pride in their nation as an example of best governance counter-balanced greed; the intoxicating faith in its power was blinding.

India is a country that has survived on wisdom of sages threaded into a complete life style — education, work, fulfillment, self-contemplation, belief — with built in social security, safety valves, law and order. The beauty was inner integration. Software designers speak of the ideal ‘foundation code/core’ with different ‘user-interfaces’ serving all without anyone realizing the massive expanse of design. Indian system catered to all human needs – personal and social; even surreal, ethereal. Lacking which, people in the great free land of America behave in short-termed fashion – rationally to situations within their experience and unpredictably to anything out of normal. Lack of deep faith brings in strange responses –  people reacting in utmost irrational fashion, committing mass suicides (the only such hysteric cases in India were people committing suicide on death of great film-stars in South like MGR; but they too have waned) to news of change in movement of heavenly bodies. See this report on National Geographic

Human evolution has been measured by material (technological) gain, intellectual maturity (social/political order) and emotional sensitivity (reflected in all behavior but consolidated in Arts). We might spy a natural opposition in Technology and Arts: the first groups, the other detaches or distinguishes. Whereas, classically the material gain created a prosperous social order which celebrated human spirit/sensitivity, today it has surpassed all others — it is an analogy gone berserk: rather than material existing for human consumption, humans exist for consuming material; like breeding rats because you have a cat in the house. There have been many stories regarding this inverse extreme — Midas dying of hunger because all he touched turned into gold,  Bhasmasur blessed with ability to annihilate anyone by touch and running to burn the god who empowered him.

Sanity does not come through gain alone; renunciation too is required. Where do we find the act of renunciation built within any modern rational system? Planning for one’s retirement begins here from day one of your job. I saw an ad for a seminar by best-seller writer of Rich Dad Poor Dad. The gist seemed to imply that as today the values of getting better education, hard work, savings etc. have been made useless by the current materialism, he would teach new methods of saving your money. “With the Choose to be Rich Coaching Program, you start doing what the rich do and the poor and middle class don’t.” It is clearly a case of value being replaced through local strategies/ tactics. He is all praise for education: “A good coach is someone who’s been there and done that, who knows the rules and strategies like the back of their hand. Someone who has knowledge and experience—and a track record of success after success. A good coach will point out your weaknesses, challenge you to grow, give you helpful training, and cheer you on when you succeed. A good coach will take you to the next level.” Did I say education? Sorry! It is coaching: coaching you to not get discouraged by your poor performance in the race of greed and wealth. Run, man, run! How apt was the coinage for such a life: rat-race.

That India still practices renunciation was dramatically exhibited to the world when an heir-apparent used the privilege to place the most competent person as CEM. Is it in the same world where dictators remain glued to their thrones wreaking cruel justice?

Now, when we plan any strategy for India, we should first examine our stand-point:
1. Are we looking from outside (Non-Indian) position? (Stake-wishers, Alien Promoters)
2. Are we on inside and wish to import future through verbatim imitation (Stake-holder, Materialist)?
3. As insiders do we wish to restore ancient traditions through complete denial of present reality (Stake-holder, Fundamentalist)?
4. Insiders using tradition to evaluate present reality for a sustainable future (Stake-holder, Integrationist)?

If you choose the position that seems best option for the people, do you find others who have as clear an idea about themselves and their role? It was the purpose of education to create such persons. If you realize that we do not have sufficient number of true-stake-holders, work towards their creation based on whatever qualities demanded by your stance.

Need I say more?

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